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Discovery of the Rosetta Stone in 1799 made on 196 BC
We include this as a major reference to the development of Egyptology.
The Rosetta Stone was discovered in 1799 at Rashid in the Nile delta area during a military construction project. Apparently, the stone had been incorporated into a much older structure which was demolished to make way for new construction. It contains copies of a decree in honour of Ptolemy V. Epiphanes passed by the priests of Egypt assembled at Memphis around 196BC, thus constituting an early publication of sorts.
The inscription is duplicated in Egyptian hieroglyphic and demotic characters, and in Greek, and was a key in the decipherment of ancient Egyptian writing. Currently in the British Museum, London England.
The Rosetta Stone is a granodiorite stele** discovered in 1799 which is inscribed with three versions of a decree issued in Memphis, Egypt in 196 BC during the Ptolemaic dynasty on behalf of King Ptolemy V Epiphanes
** A stele, or occasionally stela, when derived from Latin, is a stone or wooden slab, generally taller than it is wide, erected in the ancient world as a monument.
Why is it important?
The writing on the Stone is an official message, called a decree, about the king (Ptolemy V, r. 204–181 BC). The decree was copied on to large stone slabs called stelae, which were put in every temple in Egypt. It says that the priests of a temple inMemphis(in Egypt) supported the king. The Rosetta Stone is one of these copies, so not particularly important in its own right.
The important thing for us is that the decree is inscribed three times, inhieroglyphs(suitable for a priestly decree),Demotic(the native Egyptian script used for daily purposes, meaning ‘language of the people’), andAncient Greek(the language of the administration – the rulers of Egypt at this point were Greco-Macedonian afterAlexander the Great’s conquest).
3. Precise mathematics for measurements - integers and fractions - the decimal system
4. Geometry, algebra - quadratic formula. Like the triangles area formula A=1/2 ( bh)
5. Volume, area, basics of structures. methodical calculation processes
Hieroglyphic signs are divided into four categories:
Alphabetic signs represent a single sound. Unfortunately the Egyptians took most vowels for granted and did not represent such as ‘e’ or ‘v’. So we may never know how the words were formed.
Syllabic signs represent a combination of two or three consonants.
Word-signs are pictures of objects used as the words for those objects. they are followed by an upright stroke, to indicate that the word is complete in one sign.
A determinative is a picture of an object which helps the reader. For example; if a word expressed an abstract idea, a picture of a roll of papyrus tied up and sealed was included to show that the meaning of the word could be expressed in writing although not pictorially.
Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals that formed an integral part of ancient Egyptian society. It centered on the Egyptians' interactions with many deities believed to be present in, and in control of, the world
The many achievements of the ancient Egyptians include the quarrying, surveying and construction techniques that supported the building of monumental pyramids, temples, and obelisks; a system of mathematics, a practical and effective system of medicine, irrigation systems and agricultural production techniques.
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